Transfer Pricing in India – Background & History

Since 1991, with the liberalization of trade and foreign exchange policy India has started integrating its economy with global economy. This has led to increased cross border flow of goods, services, funds and even intangibles. There was a large inflow of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). Monetary controls
were relaxed and quantitative import barriers were lifted. Obviously, with the growing MNEs interested in India, it has become imperative for tax authorities in India to take cognizance of transfer pricing issues. It is relevant to note that many of the Indian companies have also become large global players with major acquisitions in recent past and with overseas subsidiaries in many tax jurisdictions

Introduction of Transfer Pricing Regulations in India

The Transfer pricing Regulations (TPR) were introduced in India dive the Finance Act, 2001 by substitution of the existing 92 and introduction of new sections sections 92A to 92Fin the Income Tax Act (‘Act’) and relevant rules 10A to 10E in the Income Tax Rules, 1962. The regulations are applicable to relevant international transactions entered into from 1st April 2001.

Before the introduction of the above detailed provisions, the concept of Transfer Pricing Laws India was applied under the Act in some specified circumstances and in a limited manner. Erstwhile s 92 provided that if the tax authorities believed that an international transaction with a non-resident resulted in less than ordinary profits for the resident owing to a “close connection” between the two they could re-compute the taxable income of the resident.

TPR was introduced with a view to provide a detailed statutory framework which can lead to computation of reasonable, fair and equitable profits and tax in India, in the cases of multinational enterprises, and also introduced new s 92A to 92F in the Act, relating to computation of income from an international transaction having regard to the arm’s length price, meaning of associated enterprise, meaning of international transaction, computation of arm’s length price, maintenance of information and documents by persons entering into international transactions and definitions of certain expressions occurring in the said sections.

The legislative intention, underlying the TPR, is to prevent the shifting of profits by manipulating prices charged or paid in international transactions, thereby eroding India’s tax base. The explanatory memorandum of Finance Bill, 2001 explains that the TPR was introduced to curb transfer pricing abuse.

How to Transfer Pricing Audit in India

During the last decade, India is now a major opportunity for global businesspeople looking to grow a successful business in India. Liberalization, booming middle class, and employment and the wages growth have made ​​India an appealing destination. Simultaneously, creating a company in India means to browse through the various tax and legal complexities. And one of the main tax legislation that need to be into consideration is the transfer pricing litigation.

In order to curb the practice of avoiding tax audit by the foreign companies in India, a legislation under the name ‘Transfer Pricing Regulation’ has been introduced.

So in a number of articles, Here Neeraj Bhagat & Company has explored various aspects of transfer pricing tax audit. Let us begin with understanding the transfer pricing rules in India.

The following are the important statutes of the law.

  • Each person or association who has involved in an international transaction should maintain an up-to-date record of each transaction as prescribed by the legislation.
  • All income acquired by the company by means of any international transaction shall be calculated at arm’s length price. There are various methods to calculate the arm’s length price, depending on the nature and type of the transaction, the nature of the group or the association involved, or any other features of the transactions involved. These methods are introduced by the Central Board of Direct Taxes, generally known as the ‘Board’. Some of them include the resale price method, cost plus method, comparable uncontrolled price method, and transactional net margin method.
  • If there are two or more appropriate prices assumed for a certain transaction, the arm’s length price will be calculated as the average of the prices.
  • At the end of a financial year, the person or group involved in an international transaction should submit the report of it in Form 3CEB under the guidance of a Chartered Accountant. This form has to be filed before he files the Income Tax return of the same period.

The group or person who does not adhere to these rules is liable to pay the penalties as imposed by the Board.


What is a Transfer Pricing Study?

A transfer pricing study examines the pricing of transactions between related two or more associates. By applying and documenting various test methods, it is determined whether the transactions are conducted under market conditions and survive the scrutiny of the IRS and other tax authorities.

A study of transfer pricing shall justify how a particular method is selected for enterprises and transactions being reviewed.

Transfer Pricing Study for Indian Companies

All Indian companies are required to analyze their international transaction with respect to the Transfer Pricing Regulation and adhere to it by maintaining proper transaction records and documents.

How can NB Consultants help you?

NBC acts as the advisor to your company, especially in matters concerning the effective operation of your business in India. We can help you in countering the new Transfer Pricing Regulation in a cost-effective manner, without consuming much of your time. We provide you the appropriate solution after studying your business objectives and the nature of transactions that have been carried out.

The following step-by-step procedures explain our modus operandi.

  • A fact-finding exercise is carried out in order to analyze the various functions performed by the organization and the possible risks that can be encountered by each activity.
  • Select the appropriate method of transfer pricing and identify the parties who have been tested with the particular method.
  • Conduct a survey based on the database available from various national and international sources in order to identify the companies that can be benchmarked for the selected company and perform a financial analysis on the basis of them.
  • Prepare a consolidated report on the basis of the analysis and document it appropriately.
  • Issue the report in Form 3CEB as mandated by the Indian Income Tax Act, 1961.

NBC is also specialized in defending the transfer pricing policy of various companies in front of the policy officers and thus counter them in an efficient manner.

Transfer Pricing Litigation, Documentation and Study

Transfer pricing study, litigation and consultants services under the Indian Transfer Pricing law By: Neeraz Bhagat & Co.

Neeraj Bhagat & Company offer consulting on transfer pricing documentation in more qualitative and intelligent online study and the dispute on the basis of inputs issued by the clients. In addition, adequate tax advice will also suggest and consulting on setting ARMs length price and adoption of the most appropriate method. This documentation differs from across industries and one company to another, but in the Laws of Transfer Pricing and concepts. We will be providing similar functional elements comparison of publicly available databases, both locally and globally, after comparison the FAR analysis, based on economic and Indian market conditions. Our study involves the analysis of contemporaneous facts and research from public databases also to analyze correct Price Comparison of functional elements and the like.

Why NBC Consultants for Transfer Pricing Audit and Study

Our best practical transfer pricing audit services directly enable us to develop more stringent, better quality products, and collaborate more effectively with our clients. Because are a company of impartial financial professionals, many of the leading law firms in India and worldwide also attended us to create this value and sustainable solutions to their multinational corporate clients as experts on transfer pricing litigation and arbitration.

Our consulting team has significant experience to a higher level, and work together with multinational clients and their legal and tax consultants to deliver the highest standard of case counseling and support practice, the application of sophisticated techniques based on the economy when it necessary, to address harder issues. Neeraj Bhagat & Company Clients range from some of the biggest known and most enterprises in the world for medium enterprises and through involving a number of iconic brands.

Transfer Pricing Audit in Delhi, Mumbai and Gurgaon

NBC’s transfer pricing professionals help taxpayers to overseas documentation requirements in India and for the report preparation for transfer pricing documentation that analyze the nature of full competence in prices between companies. We also help multinationals with multiple FATS to prepare the global documentation, provided all documentation requirements efficiently and consistently. Our team of audit consultants have the expertise to know what the tax officials are looking for, and may help you preparing your documents properly the first time.

Should you know how to carry out the business activities adhering to the transfer pricing policy or should you have any query on other related procedures, you may contact below details in Delhi, Mumbai and Gurgaon region of India for effective transfer pricing audit, documentation, study, litigation and consultants service:-

Neeraj Bhagat, FCA
+ 91 98101 58561
+ 91 11 28543739

Neeraj Bhagat & Company Consultants help you with your transfer pricing issues from Indian Transfer pricing Regulations (TPR), so you can speak and contact to NBC at Delhi, Mumbai and Gurgaon locations here:

New Delhi Office: Gurgaon Office: Mumbai Office:
S-13, St. Soldier Tower,
G-Block Commercial Centre,
Vikas Puri, New Delhi – 110018 (India)
+ 91 11-48560000
1156, Tower B2, 11th Floor,
Spaze ITech Park,Sohna Road,
Sector 49 Gurgaon,
Haryana 122001 (India)
+ 91 124-4371317
+ 91 124-4371318
Unit No.3, 1st Floor,
New Laxmi Shopping Centre, A-Wing,
H.D.Road, Ghatkopar (W),
Mumbai – 400086 (India)
+ 91 98202-63544
+ 91 022-65957459